Power Management

Today, we live in a digital era and embedded software is used across a vast range of real-time appliances. The embedded models, power supervision, and power efficiency are closely related. Owing to the power management in the embedded systems an operable end product is possible.

In this blog post, we will discuss the embedded system, its applications, and the various power management techniques available in IoT systems.

What is an Embedded System?

The term “embedded system” is used to define a computer system that includes both – hardware and software. Akin to any other electronic system, this system works on a hardware platform. The hardware includes a microprocessor or microcontroller.

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Power Management & Efficiency: Embedded Systems

  • Power management: It can be defined as an experimental approach to regulating power use in a system. The process of power management is executed either by hardware or software. 
  • Power efficiency: It can be defined as the fraction of power output to the total power input generated for a system.

Power Drainage by Embedded Systems 

An embedded system is designed to complete certain tasks associated with any computer. For example, navigation, space equipment, etc. These systems aren’t associable with human interaction. An embedded system is envisioned to continue operating years after years. 

Due to the low-capacity battery, restraint or limitation in the design of various embedded systems occurs. Here, the major issue is to fuse a variety of power-reducing methods into the designs of embedded systems. Power reducing methods include – peripherals, components, and microcontrollers.

Embedded systems focus on power consumption reduction and increased energy efficiency. Why? It is mainly because the majority of these systems perform on a battery. Unlike other systems, embedded systems cannot draw power directly from the grid or a generator. 

Power Optimization in Embedded Systems

A set of procedures permits the designers to control as well as hold the power management strategy for a system. Many distinctive embedded systems have already been tested with power optimization mechanisms. A small footprint, little overhead, and non-interference with real-time constraints are a few examples. 

The central technique for power management is incorporating an autonomous power manager. The power manager must come up with policies that are impressionable. The power managers produce outputs that are focused on the interactions between applications and systems. 

Power can be optimized in an embedded system by another mechanism – a power management infrastructure. This infrastructure is used with the system components, auto-suspension, and auto-resumption tools. Also, the characteristics of hardware are supportive for executing power management strategies. 

The primary goal of a power management scheme is to enable applications to process with platform-specific operatives; all by themselves; without the requirement of separate commands.

Power Reduction Techniques in the Embedded System

The embedded system is popular within several systems. It is because these systems offer required computing power for certain purposes. But, the major issue is that an embedded system encompasses much more than a CPU. 

Certain areas within embedded systems can be chosen for energy reduction. The only requirement is deep knowledge of some power management strategies. Below we have mentioned the top 5 such techniques for power reduction. 

1) Processor:

1st and foremost, one can target the processor for reducing power consumption. Several processing units comprise many onboard features that are generated towards saving energy. Likewise, systems with multiple processing blocks should be suppressed with ‘on’ and ‘off’. This way, the power will be consumed only when needed.

2) Power regulation:

A power regulation technique is also equally important for reducing power consumption within embedded systems. The power regulator offers the certainty of an efficient power supply to the system; along with a sufficient supply of power to various system blocks.

3) Peripherals:

3rd target area within an embedded system is peripherals. Akin to the processors, many peripheral units continue consuming power even if they’re not being proactive.

4) Signaling Protocol array:

An embedded system comprises an array of signaling protocols and digital interfaces. These signaling protocols gobble different amounts of power & current. The current here can be reduced. 

5) Wireless communications:

Wireless communications include front-ends and wireless blocks. This is an area where chances of power reduction are high. 

Areas of Utilities

Embedded systems applications are huge. It is highly in demand because of being protected against hacking. Today, this system is used widely in transportation, fire safety, medical applications, and industrial systems. 

Implementing a Power Management (PM) application within the embedded software differs with each case of usage. Estimating its power consumption & adding functions are key issues in designing battery-powered embedded systems. 


The power management techniques will continue to help in the better and longer functioning of embedded systems. It is because such techniques promote less power consumption. Also, such an initiative is convenient for device use from an environmental point of view.

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